What Percentage of Hip Replacements Fail? – Exploring Hip Arthroplasty and Implant Failure Rates

As an orthopedic physical therapist with over four decades of experience, I have witnessed the life-changing benefits of hip replacement surgery. Nonetheless, like any surgical procedure, it’s not without its risks and potential for failure.

In this article, I will delve into the specifics of hip arthroplasty, exploring the statistical outcomes and implant longevity. Understanding what percentage of hip replacements fail is crucial for patients considering this surgery. Armed with this knowledge, you can make informed decisions about your health and mobility, as we navigate the complexities of implant failure rates together.

Understanding Hip Replacement Longevity and Revision Rates

As a seasoned orthopedic physical therapist with decades of experience, I have encountered countless patients curious about the longevity and success of their hip replacement surgery. A total hip arthroplasty, or hip replacement, as it’s commonly known, has become a beacon of hope for those suffering from debilitating joint pain.

The question of what percentage of hip replacements fail is often at the forefront of my patients’ minds as I treat them before surgery to control the pain and deterioration of their hip joint, trying to avoid total hip replacement. This question warrants a detailed exploration of arthroplasty outcomes and revision rates.

Hip replacements are designed to mimic the natural function of the hip joint. The implanted devices consist of several components, including a femoral head, typically made of a robust material like metal or ceramic. The longevity of these components can vary significantly. The general consensus in the medical community is that more than 80% of hip arthroplasty procedures successfully last 20 years or more.

However, it’s important to understand that the term ‘failure’ in the context of hip replacements doesn’t necessarily mean a complete cessation of functioning but rather a decline in the implant’s performance leading to a potential need for revision surgery.

Revision surgery becomes a consideration when there are signs of wear and tear, loosening, or other complications that affect the integrity and effectiveness of the hip replacement. Many factors can influence the revision rates, such as the patient’s activity level, weight, age, and the surgical technique used. A meticulous surgical approach is absolutely crucial to reduce these risks and ensure appropriate placement and balance of the hip implant components.

My first surgical observation of a total hip replacement was in 1975.
It was a total hip revision.

It was my first surgical observation after graduation from physical therapy school. Back in the 1970’s, medical TV series were popular, such as Marcus Welby MD and Ben Casey.
Having watched these TV programs, they gave me the impression that surgery was a meticulous procedure done in awe-inspiring silence and concentration.

To my surprise, that was not my experience. All was going as expected until the patient was under anesthesia, then the rock-n-roll music came on surprisingly loud, the Black & Decker tools came out, as did the hammers and chisels!

The revision surgery lasted more than three hours, and as the hospital physical therapist who would be seeing the patient bedside the following day, I was sure he would not be walking anytime soon.

The next morning, seeing the patient bedside, his first statement was, “I haven’t felt this good in a long time.”. We walked around the nurse’s station using a walker with particle weight-bearing (as was recommended some 50 years ago), and the patient was extremely happy.
My perception of orthopedic surgery changed permanently, both in efficacy and technique!
Read my article: When Can You Put Full Weight on Leg After Hip Replacement

While revision surgery for a hip replacement is not as common as the initial surgery, it’s vital that patients are aware of the possibility and understand the factors contributing to an implant’s lifespan. The key to a successful joint replacement is a combination of high-quality surgical intervention, the right choice of implant materials, and comprehensive postoperative care, including physical therapy to optimize joint function and implant longevity.

There is a robust body of research indicating that with proper care and lifestyle adjustments, the majority of patients will not experience hip replacement failure within the first two decades of their surgery.

Hip arthroplasty is a remarkably effective solution for individuals whose quality of life has been compromised by hip joint issues. The failure rates of these procedures are relatively low when considering the large number of surgeries performed worldwide.
Nevertheless, it’s essential for patients to have conversations with their healthcare providers about the longevity and potential need for revision.

As an experienced orthopedic physical therapist, I have seen the transformative power of hip replacement surgery, and with continuous advances in surgical techniques and implant design, the efficacy and durability of hip replacements should only improve, enabling patients to enjoy a more active and pain-free life post-surgery.

The Role of Implant Quality in Hip Replacement Revision

With more than four decades of experience in the field of orthopedic physical therapy, I have witnessed significant advancements in the domain of hip replacement surgery. A critical aspect that determines the success and longevity of a hip arthroplasty is the implant quality.

The evolution of prosthesis design and materials has substantially enhanced the durability and functionality of implants, thereby mitigating the rates of implant failure to a notable extent. However, despite these improvements, there remains a percentage of hip replacements that eventually require a hip revision surgery due to various reasons including wear, infection, or mechanical issues.

Implant quality plays a pivotal role in the longevity of a hip replacement. High-caliber materials and cutting-edge technology in prosthesis manufacturing have extended the life expectancy of these artificial joints, often allowing patients several decades of good function before a revision may be necessary.

Surgical techniques in orthopedic surgery have also kept pace, with an improved understanding of how to best match the implant to the patient’s individual anatomy and activity levels. This personalized approach helps to minimize the risk of implant failure and the subsequent need for a hip revision.
Read my article:
Anterior vs. Posterior Hip Replacement: Pain, Surgery & Approaches Compared

In assessing the likelihood of implant failure, it’s noteworthy that the majority of hip replacements function effectively for many years. Current statistics suggest that approximately 85-90% of hip arthroplasty procedures remain successful for 15-20 years post-surgery. Nevertheless, implant failure can and does occur, and when it does, a hip revision may be the next course of action.

The intricate process of revising a hip prosthesis demands a high degree of expertise from the performing orthopedic surgeon, as the challenges of dealing with bone loss, scar tissue, and the compromised integrity of the previous implant need to be skillfully managed.

The necessity for hip revision surgery is influenced by several factors, including implant quality, but also the patient’s age, activity level, and overall health. Younger and more active individuals may experience implant failure at a higher rate due to increased stress on the implant over time.

Conversely, those with comorbid conditions like osteoporosis or who are of advanced age might face different challenges that contribute to the need for revision. Regardless, the optimal performance of any hip prosthesis hinges significantly on the quality of the implant and the precision of its insertion during surgery.
Read my article:
Who Is Not a Good Candidate for Hip Replacement Surgery & Identifying a Good Candidate

As a healthcare professional committed to guiding patients through the journey of hip replacement, I cannot stress enough the centrality of implant quality in mitigating the risk of failure. It’s a cardinal element that cannot be overlooked in pre-surgical planning and discussion.

I encourage all patients considering hip arthroplasty to speak at length with their orthopaedic surgeon about the types of implants available and how different options may influence the potential need for a revision procedure down the line.

Informed decisions based on a comprehensive understanding of implant quality could significantly enhance the success of their hip replacement and overall quality of life post-surgery.

Total Hip Replacement Prosthesis Manufacturers and Failure Rates

Hip prosthesis failures are failures of specific components of the prosthesis, and the failure rate of that component is a difficult statistic to find, however, which component of the prosthesis is easier to identify.

Manufacturer:Component that failed:
Zimmer BiometAcetabular Cup
Zimmer BiometFemoral Head
Zimmer BiometFemoral Stem
DePuy SynthesAcetabular Cup
DePuy SynthesFemoral Head
DePuy SynthesFemoral Stem
StrykerAcetabular Cup
StrykerFemoral Head
StrykerFemoral Stem
Smith & NephewAcetabular Cup
Smith & NephewFemoral Head
Smith & NephewFemoral Stem

Factors Leading to Hip Arthroplasty Failure and Subsequent Revision

When we consider the journey of a patient undergoing a hip arthroplasty, it’s essential to understand that while the majority of hip replacements are successful, a small percentage encounter issues that may lead to failure and the need for a revision surgery. As a seasoned orthopedic physical therapist with over 40 years of experience, I’ve witnessed firsthand the various factors that can contribute to the failure of a hip arthroplasty.

The longevity of a hip replacement is a testament to both the quality of the implant and the skill of the surgical team. Yet certain scenarios exist where a hip replacement becomes less effective over time, thus increasing the risk of failure. One such issue is implant loosening, which can occur as a result of the body’s natural response to the foreign body or from biomechanical stresses that lead to wear and tear over time. This loosening can cause pain, reduced mobility, and ultimately a failure in the hip arthroplasty, prompting a revision procedure.

The most severe case of failure I have ever seen was at the beginning of my career as the Chief of Physical Therapy at my hometown’s private hospital.
It was a 21-year-old bucking bronc rider having his third total hip surgery because of his refusal to stop riding in the rodeos.

Even though his surgeon informed him he did not have enough bone left to do a fourth procedure, he expressed his intention to me as his physical therapist, that he would be returning to bronc riding as soon as possible.
I have no idea of the ultimate outcome, but my prediction was a looming disaster!

Infection is another serious challenge that can lead to hip arthroplasty failure. Despite advancements in surgical technique and sterility, infections still occur and can be devastating. Should an infection take hold, it often necessitates the removal of the prosthetic, a course of antibiotics, and once the infection is resolved, a revision hip replacement. Patient health and lifestyle choices, such as smoking or poor nutrition, can also play a significant role in both the risk of infection and the overall success of a hip arthroplasty.

In my experience, patients with hip replacement infections are placed on a six-week antibiotic drip on a drip bag pole, requiring one hand on the pole with any mobility, and being restricted to non -weight-bearing on the infected hip, making it near impossible for ambulation during that six-week period.

Furthermore, the longevity and performance of the hip replacement can be affected by the quality of the implant itself. Manufacturers have developed various materials and designs to optimize the function and durability of hip replacements. However, not all implants are created equal, and some may fail prematurely due to manufacturing defects or suboptimal designs, which once again leads to the need for a revision surgery.

Moreover, the alignment and positioning of the prosthesis are critical in ensuring a successful hip arthroplasty. Improper placement can result in abnormal wear patterns, decreased range of motion, and may ultimately compromise the stability of the joint. Such complications warrant a close examination and possible revision to correct these issues and restore proper function.

Lastly, let’s not overlook the impact of patient factors on the outcome of a hip replacement. Conditions such as osteoporosis, which weakens bone integrity, or high-impact activities that place excessive strain on the joint, can each lead to an increased risk of hip arthroplasty failure. Educating patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and adhering to post-operative instructions is a cornerstone of successful long-term outcomes.

While modern hip replacements have come a long way and offer significant benefits to those suffering from hip pain and mobility issues, awareness of these factors is crucial for patients considering this procedure.

Remember, the success of a hip arthroplasty depends on a partnership between the patient, the surgeon, the quality of the implant, and the aftercare, including physical therapy.

Assessing the Percentage of Hip Replacements Requiring Revision

When patients are considering hip replacement surgery, one of the key concerns often discussed is the longevity of the implant and the likelihood of requiring a revision surgery down the line. The percentage of hip replacements that eventually need revision is an essential statistic that informs patient expectations and guides clinical practice.

As a seasoned orthopedic physical therapist with more than 40 years of experience, I’ve witnessed firsthand the evolution of hip arthroplasty and the improvements in implant technology that have influenced revision rates.

The percentages concerning hip replacement revisions can vary, but according to extensive clinical studies and registry data, the majority of hip replacements will function for decades without failure.

Studies often indicate that about 90-95% of prosthetic hips last at least 15 years, and the percentage of hip replacements that continue to function well at 20 years is also quite high.

The necessity for revision is, therefore, relatively low within this timeframe, but it can increase as the implant ages. It’s important for patients to understand that while hip replacements are highly successful, they are not immune to wear and potential complications.

When a hip replacement does fail, there are several reasons why a revision might be necessary. Factors leading to hip arthroplasty failure include infection, mechanical wear, dislocation, and bone loss around the implant. Each of these variables can contribute to a diminished implant lifespan and necessitate a revision surgery.

In particular, the quality of the initial hip replacement implant plays a critical role, as high-quality materials and designs are correlated with reduced percentages of revision. The role of implant quality in hip replacement revision cannot be overstated; selecting the right implant is a decision of paramount importance for surgeons.

As implant techniques have refined over time, the percentage of hip replacements requiring revision has notably decreased. However, when revisions do occur, they are often more complex procedures with longer recovery times than initial surgeries.

Therefore, understanding the factors leading to hip arthroplasty failure and taking preventative measures against them is a critical component of long-term joint health post-surgery. My professional experience suggests that diligent patient follow-up, lifestyle modifications, and appropriate physical therapy can all impact the longevity of a hip replacement.

Ultimately, for those contemplating hip replacement surgery, it’s crucial to have a comprehensive discussion with your healthcare provider about the potential for revision. Although the percentages of revisions are relatively low, being educated on the possibility and knowing the signs of implant failure can ensure that if a revision is required, it is addressed promptly and effectively.

As medical professionals, our goal is to support you in achieving the best possible outcome, and that includes minimizing the risk of revision and maximizing the life of your hip replacement.

Statistical Analysis of Hip Replacement Outcomes and Revision Necessity

As an orthopedic physical therapist, I have witnessed the evolution and advancements in hip replacement surgery over almost fifty years, leading to increasingly positive outcomes for patients. Through a comprehensive statistical analysis, we’ve come to understand that the percentage of hip replacements requiring revision is a critical factor in evaluating the success of the initial arthroplasty.

Current statistics suggest that approximately 10% of hip replacements may fail within 15 to 20 years, necessitating a revision procedure. However, it’s essential to highlight that the term failure doesn’t always equate to a complete breakdown of the implant. It may also represent any complication that impairs functionality or causes significant discomfort to the patient, thus requiring intervention.

The need for revision after hip replacement often arises from various factors, and these elements can affect the longevity of the implant. Among these factors, the quality of the implant plays a pivotal role. High-end prosthetic designs and materials have been shown to significantly reduce the likelihood of premature failure, thereby reducing the percentages associated with revision surgeries.

The outcomes associated with hip replacement also greatly depend on a surgeon’s expertise, the patient’s adherence to post-operative care, and underlying health conditions that might predispose an individual to complications.
Read my articles:
How To Choose A Surgeon For Hip Replacement: A PT’s View
Who Is Not a Good Candidate for Hip Replacement Surgery & Identifying a Good Candidate
At What Age Should You Not Have a Hip Replacement? Understanding Age and Hip Replacement Surgery

An in-depth statistical analysis of hip arthroplasty failure reveals patterns and percentages that are vital for medical professionals and patients alike. For example, while the implant quality significantly influences the risk of revision, the patient’s activity level, weight, and age at the time of the procedure are equally important.

Younger and more active patients may experience higher revision rates due to the increased mechanical demands placed on the implant. In contrast, older patients may encounter revisions due to the age-related weakening of the bone structure, known as osteoporosis, which affects the implant’s stability.

When looking at the statistical percentages regarding failure and successful outcomes of hip arthroplasty, it is also important to understand the rate at which revisions occur in relation to the total number of hip replacements performed annually. Advances in surgical techniques and technology have led to a decline in the overall necessity for revision, contributing to the success of initial hip replacements.
Read my article:
Anterior vs. Posterior Hip Replacement: Pain, Surgery & Approaches Compared

Moreover, personalized approaches to patient care have fostered improvements in preoperative planning, ultimately reducing the number of unexpected revision procedures.

While the statistical analysis shows that a majority of hip replacements are successful, there is a subset of cases where revision becomes necessary. As healthcare professionals, it is our duty to continue monitoring these percentages and identifying factors contributing to failure and revisions. Such vigilance allows us to refine surgical techniques, select optimal implants, and tailor recovery strategies to maximize the potential for long-term success.

Patients contemplating hip replacement surgery should be well-informed about these statistics and engage in a detailed discussion with their healthcare provider to understand the potential risks and benefits based on their unique circumstances.

Long-Term Survival of Hip Implants and Predictors for Revision

As a seasoned orthopedic physical therapist with over four decades of experience in helping patients recover from total hip replacement, I’ve witnessed first-hand the advancements in the long-term survival of hip implants. Understanding the longevity and the predictors for revision is crucial for patients considering this life-enhancing surgery.

Generally, hip implant technology has seen significant improvements, resulting in most patients enjoying their new hips for many years without issues. Statistically speaking, the success rate for hip arthroplasty is quite high. However, like all medical devices, they have a finite lifespan. Hip implants can eventually wear out or fail due to various reasons, leading to a potential need for revision surgery.

The predictors for revision can be multifactorial. They include patient-related factors such as activity level, weight, and underlying health conditions. Surgical factors like implant type, the skill of the surgeon, and the quality of surgery are also pivotal. Quality hip implants that are expertly fitted play a significant role in extending the implant’s lifespan.

In addition, implant design and materials contribute to the long-term survival of the device. Metal-on-metal implants, once popular, have seen a decline in usage due to an increased rate of complications, prompting patients and health professionals to opt for alternative materials that demonstrate better outcomes.

Factors leading to hip arthroplasty failure, and subsequent revision include mechanical wear, infection, and implant loosening. Mechanical wear can lead to osteolysis, where bone damage occurs from inflammatory reactions to wear particles. Infection, albeit rare, is a serious complication that might necessitate implant removal and revision. Implant loosening grows more likely as time passes but can also result from improper healing or initial placement.

Assessing the percentage of hip replacements requiring revision is an ongoing process. Research shows that the overall failure rate remains relatively low, especially within the first decade following surgery. However, this rate can increase gradually over time, thus the importance of understanding the long-term survival of hip implants cannot be understated.

Clinical studies and registries are critical for the statistical analysis of hip replacement outcomes and revision necessity. These registries help us identify trends, improve patient screening, and enhance surgical techniques to decrease the likelihood of future revisions.

While no medical intervention is without risk, the vast majority of hip replacement surgeries are successful, with patients returning to a much-improved quality of life. As an orthopedic physical therapist, my role is to guide patients through the recovery process, helping them achieve the best possible outcomes with their hip implants.

Patients should discuss with their surgeons about the long-term survival prospects of their hip implants and understand the predictors for revision to make informed decisions. By doing so, patients can approach hip arthroplasty with realistic expectations and a clear understanding of how to maximize the longevity of their hip implants

Technological Advances in Hip Replacement: Impact on Revision Frequency

In my extensive experience as an orthopedic physical therapist, I’ve borne witness to the remarkable evolution of hip replacement surgery. The impact of technological advances on the longevity and success of hip prostheses cannot be overstated. We’ve seen significant improvements in implant design and surgical technique, which have subsequently decreased the revision frequency.

However, it’s essential to address the primary concern for many patients: What percentage of hip replacements fail? The answer lies in a multifaceted realm; not all hip replacements are created equal, nor are they subject to a singular rate of failure.

The impetus for hip joint revision can vary widely, prompting healthcare providers to look closely at factors such as the type of prosthesis used, the quality of implant, and the expertise of the surgical team.

When considering the percentage of hip replacements that necessitate revision, one should also consider individual patient factors, including activity level, weight, and underlying health conditions. In terms of statistical analysis of hip replacement outcomes and revision necessity, data suggests that the impact of technological advances in materials and surgical techniques have contributed immensely to the long-term survival of hip implants.

The integration of highly cross-linked polyethylene in socket liners and the advent of sophisticated ceramics and wear-resistant alloys have all served to extend the life expectancy of hip prostheses. The promise of a successful hip replacement today is luminous; the likelihood of living out one’s days without the need for a revision procedure has risen exponentially.

This is corroborated by empirical evidence detailing the long-term survival of hip implants and the predictors for revision. Current research indicates that the failure rates for primary hip arthroplasty are being pushed to further margins, allowing a greater percentage of patients to achieve lifetime implant success.

As we push forward, the role of implant quality in hip replacement revision takes on an even greater significance. Improved quality control measures and rigorous testing of hip replacement components ensure that each hip prosthesis meets the highest standards of durability and compatibility. The factors leading to hip arthroplasty failure are being meticulously scrutinized and addressed with innovative solutions that are a testament to human ingenuity and our commitment to patient care.

The collective efforts of research institutions, medical professionals, and patients themselves are paramount in driving down the need for revision procedures. As an informed patient, one should not overlook the importance of choosing a reputable surgeon who is versed in the latest hip replacement techniques and materials.

Assessing the percentage of hip replacements requiring revision is an evolving metric, and thanks to technological advances, the impact on hip replacement longevity favors a future where hip revision becomes the exception, not the norm.

Developing Strategies to Minimize Hip Replacement Revision

As an orthopedic physical therapist with over four decades of experience, I know a pertinent aspect of patient care is understanding and addressing the potential for implant failure and the resulting need for revision surgery. A concerted focus on minimizing the percentage of hip replacements that require revision not only improves patient outcomes but also reduces the burden on our healthcare system.

Throughout my career, I’ve consistently emphasized preemptive strategies tailored to reduce the occurrence of revision surgeries due to various failure mechanisms, including aseptic loosening, one of the most common reasons for hip arthroplasty failure.

Throughout my career, I have developed a strong red-flag alarm in my brain for early warning signs of infection that can only be developed through experience.
Just like surgeons, the more experience the more quickly a problem is recognized.

Lucky for me, a large percentage of my physician referrals come from a surgeon who has one of the lowest infection rates in the nation, and in some time periods, the top surgeon for low infection rates.
His pre-surgical preventative protocols, as well as the hospital’s track record, contribute to his success.

Central to these strategies is patient education and a thorough preoperative evaluation to ensure suitable candidates are chosen for the surgery. It’s essential to manage expectations and emphasize the role of postoperative rehabilitation in securing the longevity of hip implants.

Additionally, meticulous surgical technique and choosing the right implant for each patient are paramount in minimizing revision rates. Working collaboratively with orthopedic surgeons, I have witnessed how the selection of high-quality implants can influence the rate of success. The continued refinement of surgical techniques juxtaposed with technological advances in hip replacement design and materials has produced a significant impact on reducing the frequency of revision.

The analysis of statistical data compiled over the years provides invaluable insight into hip replacement outcomes and has been fundamental to our understanding of when and why revisions become necessary. Such data has prompted the development of enhanced recovery protocols which are integral to my practice. The aim is to optimize the patient’s physical condition prior to surgery and tailor rehabilitation programs post-surgery to foster optimal implant integration and function.

Moreover, the implementation of multimodal pain management strategies has led to improved pain control, enabling patients to commence physiotherapy sooner and with greater effectiveness. This accelerates recovery and helps safeguard the implant from early failure.
Read my article: Ice After Total Hip Replacement: A PT’s Complete Guide

Another tactic is the careful monitoring of patients through regular follow-ups which aids in early detection of potential complications that might necessitate revision. This proactive approach allows for timely interventions, often circumventing the need for more invasive revision procedures.

Predictors for revision, identified through longitudinal studies, have bolstered the development of targeted interventions. Addressing modifiable risk factors such as patient weight, activity level, and bone quality pre-surgery and deploying strategies to manage these can greatly reduce the risk of complications leading to revision. The positive effect of these combined efforts is reflected in the long-term survival rates of hip implants, which have been steadily improving, underscoring the efficacy of these comprehensive approaches.

Hip replacement surgery remains a highly successful intervention for patients suffering from debilitating hip conditions. Yet, the mission to minimize hip implant failure and the need for subsequent revision is ongoing.

By implementing comprehensive strategies, vigorously pursuing technological advancements, and committing to the continuous education of healthcare professionals and patients alike, big strides are being made in the pursuit of enduring hip replacement success. The result is not just an improved quality of life for our patients, but the fulfillment of our shared dedication to excellence in orthopedic care.

Read my other articles about Total Hip Replacement

Q: What percentage of hip replacements eventually fail and require revision surgery?
A: Current statistics suggest that approximately 10% of hip replacements may fail within 15 to 20 years, leading to a potential need for revision surgery. It is important to note that ‘failure’ encompasses any complication that significantly impairs functionality or causes discomfort, not necessarily a complete breakdown of the implant.

Q: What factors contribute to the failure and need for revision of a hip replacement?
A: The longevity and performance of a hip replacement can be affected by several factors including implant quality and design, surgical technique, patient-related factors such as activity level, weight, underlying health conditions, infection, mechanical wear, and implant loosening.

Q: How have technological advances impacted the longevity and success rates of hip replacements?
A: Technological advances in prosthetic design, materials, and surgical techniques have significantly improved the longevity and success rates of hip replacements. Innovations such as highly cross-linked polyethylene liners and advanced ceramics and alloys have extended the life expectancy of implants, thus decreasing the frequency of revisions.

Q: Why is the impact of implant quality on hip replacement revision significant?
A: Implant quality is pivotal in the longevity of a hip replacement. High-quality materials and manufacturing standards greatly reduce the likelihood of premature failure, hence influencing the long-term success of the surgical procedure and reducing the percentages associated with revision surgeries.

Q: As a patient, how can I minimize the risk of requiring hip replacement revision surgery?
A: To minimize the risk of revision, it’s essential to choose a reputable orthopedic surgeon experienced in the latest techniques and materials, adhere to post-operative care instructions, maintain a healthy lifestyle, manage weight, avoid high-impact activities, and attend regular follow-up appointments to detect potential complications early. Additionally, engaging in physical therapy is crucial for recovery and long-term implant success.

Dr. Robert Donaldson

Dr. Donaldson is dually licensed; physical therapy in 1975 and doctor of chiropractic in 1995. He held credentials of Orthopedic Clinical Specialist in physical therapy for 20 years, QME in California, and taught at USC. He owns and operates an orthopedic physical therapy practice. See "About Me" page.

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